Should've spotted this really and been ready to stop it before it did another round scratching the label. Especially on a gramophone that doesn't have an automatic brake, it then just keeps scratching scratching scratching deeper (at 78 rpm).
On the other hand, this seems the runout track by design. There is even a deliberate opening in the inner ridge to let the run-out groove run onto the label. Some records have a scratch or damage in a groove that makes the needle jump the track - to then play havoc on the label. This looked like one of those when I saw it spiral onto its label, and heard that grating sound. But this one's strange in that it seems 'by design'.
Maybe the matrix was initially made for a smaller label (though the inner ridge suggests otherwise). It feels like an older, 'teens recording, the pressing likely dates from the early 1920-ies.
Or maybe the recording engineer simply made a mistake with setting up the cutting-machine for this session.
Either way, the record gave a me 'start' in any case - even if it's not a 'needle-jump', it made me jump.